Glossary


General references

Specific references to GOLDMine data

CGCG
Designation in the Catalogue of Galaxies and of Clusters of Galaxies

Zwicky, F.; Herzog, E.; Wild, P.
"Catalogue of Galaxies and of Clusters of Galaxies"
1961-1968, Volume I, Pasadena: California Insitute Of Technology

Enter the field number followed by the galaxy sequence number in the field (example: 97-087 or 97087 or 97 087 or 97 87).

The CGCG fields 13, 14, 15, 41, 42, 43, 69, 70, 71, 98, 99, 100 belong to in the Virgo cluster.
The CGCG fields 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 157, 158, 159, 160 161 belong to in the Coma region.
The CGCG field 522 belongs to in the A262 region.
The CGCG field 119 belongs to in the Cancer region.
The CGCG fields 169 and 224 belong to in the A2197+A2199 region.
The CGCG field 108 belongs to in the A2147+A2151 region.
Click the "Galaxies lists" in the "Search by name" page to see the full list of GOLDMine objects with their Catalogue names.


NGC
Designation in the New General Catalogue

Mem. Mon. R. A. S. 1888 vol. 49 p. 1-237
Dreyer, J. L. E.
"A new general catalogue of nebulae and clusters of stars, being the cataloque of the late sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., revised, corrected and enlarged"

There are 17 GOLD Mine galaxies in common with the Messier catalogue
Messier C.
"Catalogue des nebuleuses et des amas d'etoiles"
Connaissance des Temps, 1784, 227-269

15 are in the Virgo cluster:
M98 NGC4192 VCC0092
M99 NGC4254 VCC0307
M61 NGC4303 VCC0508
M100 NGC4321 VCC0596
M84 NGC4374 VCC0763
M86 NGC4406 VCC0881
M49 NGC4472 VCC1226
M87 NGC4486 VCC1316
M88 NGC4501 VCC1401
M91 NGC4548 VCC1615
M89 NGC4552 VCC1632
M90 NGC4569 VCC1690
M58 NGC4579 VCC1727
M59 NGC4621 VCC1903
M60 NGC4649 VCC1978
2 are in projected onto the Coma Supercluster:
M85 NGC4382 GCGC 099-045
M64 NGC4826 GCGC 130-001


IC
Designation in the Index Catalogue

Mem. R. A. S. 1895 vol. 51 p. 185-228
Dreyer, J.
"Index catalogue of nebulae found in the years 1888 to 1894, with notes and corrections to the New General Catalogue"
Mem. R. A. S. 1908 vol. 59 p. 105-198
Dreyer, J.
"Index catalogue of nebulae and clusters of stars, containing objects found in the years 1895 to 1907; with notes and corrections to the New General Catalogue"



VCC
Designation in the Virgo Cluster Catalogue

A. J. 1985 vol. 90 p. 1681
Binggeli, B., Sandage, A., Tammann, G. A.
"Studies of the virgo cluster. II. A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster area"


UGC
Designation in the Uppsala General Catalog of Galaxies

1973 vol. p.
Nilson, P.
"Uppsala General Catalogue of galaxies, 1973, Acta Universitatis Upsalienis, Nova Regiae Societatis Upsaliensis, Series v: a Vol. 1"


RA (2000)
Celestial Right Ascension precessed to the year 2000. Few arcsec accuracy.

DEC (2000)
Celestial Declination precessed to the year 2000. Few arcsec accuracy.

a
Major optical diameter (arcmin) determined at the surface brightness of 25th magnitude / arcsec^2. From the UGC (when available) or consistently determined by us.
For VCC galaxies the diameter is computed from the "last visible" isophotal diameter given in the VCC using: Log a_ext=0.99 Log a_25+0.1


b
Minor optical diameter (arcmin) determined at the surface brightness of 25th magnitude / arcsec^2. From the UGC (when available) or consistently determined by us.
For VCC galaxies the diameter is computed from the "last visible" isophotal diameter given in the VCC using: Log a_ext=0.99 Log a_25+0.1

Photographic Magnitude

Photographic Magnitude from the CGCG, UGC or VCC.

Redshift

Heliocentric recessional velocity from the literature.

Distance

Distance in Mpc: for cluster members is derived from the average redshift of the cluster, otherwise from the individual redshift assuming Ho=75 km/sec/Mpc (see Gavazzi G., Carrasco L., Galli R., "The 3-D structure of the Coma-A1367 Supercluster: optical spectroscopy of 102 galaxies", 1999, A&AS, 136, 227 and Gavazzi G., Boselli A., Scodeggio M., Belsole E., Pierini D., "The 3-D structure of the Virgo cluster from H band Fundamental Plane and Tully-Fisher distance determinations", 1999, MNRAS, 304, 595 for details).

Morphological Type
For Coma see:
Astrophysical Letters & communcations 1996 vol. 35 p. 1 Gavazzi, G., Boselli, A. A UBVJHK photometric catalogue of 1022 Galaxies in 8 nearby clusters
For Virgo see:
A. J. 1985 vol. 90 p. 1681 Binggeli, B., Sandage, A., Tammann, G. A. Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II. A catalog of 2096 galaxies in the Virgo Cluster Area
and: Binggeli B., Popescu C., Tammann G., 1993, A&AS, 98, 275

In the output of the "search by parameters" page the morphological type is coded numerically following a semplified version of the classification scheme used in the VCC:

-3: dS0
-2: dE/dS0
-1: dE (d:E)
  0: E - E/S0
  1: S0
  2: S0a - S0/Sa
  3: Sa
  4: Sab
  5: Sb
  6: Sbc
  7: Sc (dSc)
  8: Scd
  9: Sd
10: Sdm - Sd/Sm
11: Sm
12: Im (Im/S)
13: Pec
14: S/BCD (dS/BCD dS0/BCD Sd/BCD)
15: Sm/BCD
16: Im/BCD
17: BCD
18: S (dS)
19: dIm/dE
20: ?


Continuum photometry parameters
These are total magnitudes from aperture or CCD photometry, uncorrected for extinction either internal or due to our Galaxy.

Johnson bands



UV Magnitude
Total 2000 A magnitude as given in:
Donas J., Milliard B., Laget M., Buat V., 1990, A&A, 235, 60
Donas J., Milliard B., Laget M., 1995, A&A, 303, 661
Deharveng J.M., Sasseen T., Buat V., Bowyer S., Lampton M., Wu X., 19 94, A\&A, 289, 715 (FAUST)
or given us by J. Donas (private communication).
These are total (not aperture) UV magnitudes extracted from the photographic plates. Data taken with the FAUST experiment at 1650 AA were converted to 2000 AA using: UV_(2000)=UV_(1650)+0.2 mag. The quoted error on the UV magnitude is 0.3 mag in general, but it ranges from 0.2 mag for bright galaxies to 0.5 mag for weak sources observed in frames with larger than average calibration uncertainties.


Optical (U,B,V) Magnitudes
Total magnitudes (U,B,V) computed at the optical radius (25th magnitude / arcsec^2). The assumed photometrical uncertainties are 15% for B, V and 20% for U. Optical magnitudes derive from published aperture/ccd photometry or from several imaging campaigns carried out with the Loiano 1.5m and San Pedro Martir 2.1m telescopes.
See:
Astrophysical Letters & communcations 1996 vol. 35 p. 1 Gavazzi, G., Boselli, A. A UBVJHK Photometric catalogue of 1022 galaxies in 8 nearby clusters


NIR (J,H,K) Magnitudes
Total Near Infrared magnitudes (J,H,K) computed at the optical radius (25th magnitude / arcsec^2). The assumed photometrical uncertainties are 15% for H and 20% for J and K. NIR magnitudes derive from data taken during observational campaigns carried out with infrared telescopes (TIRGO 1.5m, Calar Alto 2.2m, 3.5m, TNG 3.6m, ESO/NTT).
See:
Astrophysical Letters & communcations 1996 vol. 35 p. 1 Gavazzi, G., Boselli, A. A UBVJHK Photometric catalogue of 1022 galaxies in 8 nearby clusters


IRAS data
IRAS 60 and 100 micron fluxes (in Jy) with sign ("."=detected; "<"=upper limit).

RADIO data
Radio Continuum fluxes (in mJy) at 21 and 50 cm (1420 and 610 MHz) with sign ("."=detected; "<"=upper limit).
The 1420 MHz flux is generally derived from the NVSS survey of Condon et al. (1998). The 610 MHz flux is from Gavazzi (1979) and Jaffe et al. (1986).
See:
1999A&A...343...93G On the local radio luminosity function of galaxies. II. Environmental dependences among late-type galaxies. GAVAZZI G., BOSELLI A.
1999A&A...343...86G On the local radio luminosity function of galaxies. I. The Virgo cluster. GAVAZZI G., BOSELLI A.
Note: For Virgo galaxies the 50 cm Flux is derived from the 2380 MHz Flux of Dressel & Condon: 1978, Ap.J.Suppl.,36,53 converted to 610 using a spectral index 0.80.



Line photometry parameters

HI Mass
Neutral Hydrogen mass (Log solar masses) with sign ("."=detected; "<"=upper limit) obtained using:
MHI=2.36*(10.**5)*(dist**2)*SHI where SHI is the flux in the HI line (in mJy km/sec) and dist is the distance in Mpc.
Our data derive from observational campaigns carried out in the 21cm line using the Arecibo telescope, with VLA and with the Nancay radio telescope.


H_2 Mass
Molecular Hydrogen mass (Log solar masses) with sign ("."=detected; "<"=upper limit) obtained with a luminosity dependent C conversion factor, as explained in:
Boselli, A.; Lequeux, J.; Gavazzi, G. Astronomy and Astrophysics, v.384, p.33-47 (2002) Molecular gas in normal late-type galaxies.
Data derive from several observational campaigns carried out with millimetric radio telescopes (IRAM, SEST, ONSALA, KPNO) (Boselli et al. 1994, 1995a,b, 1997b, 2002b; Casoli et al. 1996a,b, 1998).


H_alpha Equivalent Width
Equivalent width of the H_alpha[+NII] line (in AA).
The census of currently forming (younger than 10^7 yrs) massive (M>5 Msol) stars is best achieved by observing the Balmer recombination line H_alpha (6563 AA in the red visible domain) which is emitted by the ionized gas surrounding the regions of current star formation (HII regions).
Our data derive from several observational campaigns of H_alpha line emission imaging carried out with optical telescopes (KPNO 1.3m, SPM 2.1m, OHP 1.2m, INT 2.5m, NOT 2.5m, Calar Alto 1.2m) by Gavazzi et al. (1991, 1998, 2000a, 2001a, 2002a,b); Boselli et al. (2002c,d); Iglesias Paramo et al. (2002).


H_alpha Flux
Log of Flux in the H_alpha[+NII] line (in erg/ cm^2 s)
(same references as above).



Dynamical parameters

Width of HI line
Observed width of the HI line (in km/sec) obtained by averaging the value at 20% of the peak flux with the one at 50% of the mean flux.
See Scodeggio and Gavazzi, 1993, ApJ, 409, 110
21 centimeter study of spiral galaxies in clusters. III Neutral gas content, star formation, and radio continuum properties.


HI Quality
Quality of the HI spectrum. 1= good quality, high signal-to-noise, double-horned spectra
2= good quality, high signal-to-noise, single-horned spectra
3= medium quality, medium signal-to-noise spectra
4= poor quality, low signal-to-noise spectra
5= unpublished profile


Width of the H_alpha line
Observed width from the H_alpha rotation curves found in the literature (in km/sec), uncorrected for galaxy inclination.

Central velocity dispersion
from the width of the Mg I absorption triplet (lambda 5167.3, 5172.7, 5183.6) (in km/s). Measurements are from McElroy (1995) and from Scodeggio (1997), reduced homogeneously to a common aperture according to the prescriptions of Jorgensen et al. (1996).


Structural parameters

Concentration index C31
The ratio of the radii containing 75% and 25% of the light. This is computed in the H, V, B bands (when available).
See Gavazzi et al. 2000, A&A, 361, 863
1.65 micron (H band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decompositions of 1157 galaxies.


Re
Effective radius containing 50% of the total asymptotic magnitude. This is computed in the H, V, B bands (when available).
See Gavazzi et al. 2000, A&A, 361, 863
1.65 micron (H band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decompositions of 1157 galaxies.


mu_e
Effective surface brightness computed at R_e. This is computed in the H, V, B bands (when available).
See Gavazzi et al. 2000, A&A, 361, 863
1.65 micron (H band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decompositions of 1157 galaxies.


Total Asymptotic Magnitude
Total asymptotic magnitude obtained by fitting the light curves with either exponential or de Vaucouleurs (or combination of the two) models. This is computed in the H, V, B bands (when available).
See Gavazzi et al. 2000, A&A, 361, 863
1.65 micron (H band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decompositions of 1157 galaxies.



Imaging

Finding chart
Finding Charts are available from the Digitized Palomar Sky Survey for all galaxies. Each selected galaxy appears at the center of the 10x10 arcmin^2 finding chart. When multiple catalogued galaxies appear in the same finding chart, by clicking over their names each of them can be selected. In this case the database and image queries are re-directed to the selected galaxy.

B Image
B band Image

V Image
V band Image

H_alpha NET Image
Halpha image obtained from the difference between the On-band narrow-band image and the Halpha OFF image (see below).

H_alpha OFF Image
Image of the underlying stellar continuum near H_alpha obtained either from narrow-band or broad-band (R) imaging.

H Image
Near Infrared H band image.

K Image
Near Infrared K band image.

RGB Image
Synthesized color RGB image obtained combining either B,V and H broad band images, or H_alpha NET, H_alpha OFF and H_alpha OFF images.

Spectrum
These are optical spectra integrated over the whole surface of the galaxy (obtained in drift-scan mode) as given in Gavazzi et al. 2002, ApJ, 576, 135.
"Spectro-photometry of galaxies in the Virgo cluster. I: The star formation Histories".
The spectra are transformed to rest-frame. The intensity is normalized to the flux at 5500 A (V band). Spectra derive from observational campaigns carried out with optical telescopes (OHP 1.9m, ESO 3.6m).
See also:
Gavazzi et al. (1999b, 2000d, 2002c,d,e).


Light Profile
Radial profiles of the light distribution as obtained on the available (B, V, H) images.
See Gavazzi et al. 2000, A&A, 361, 863
1.65 micron (H band) surface photometry of galaxies. V. Profile decompositions of 1157 galaxies.
When at least two radial profiles are available the color radial profile is also shown.


SED
These are Spectral Energy distributions from the UV to the centimetric radio continuum obtained from broad-band photometry. Notice that the data are total fluxes (extrapolated to the optical radii), unlike the individual aperture data given by NED. However the data are given as observed, i.e. uncorrected for extinction from our Galaxy and for internal extinction. The log of the Flux (in mJy) is given as a function of the log of the wavelength (in micron).


SDSS Images
The solid response curves show the througput defining the survey's photometric system, which includes extinction through an airmass of 1.3 at Apache Point Observatory. For reference, the dashed curves do not include any atmospheric extinction. These are sometimes loosely referred to as "filter curves" although they do include the full system response from atmosphere to detector.


UKIDSS Images
The specified transmission profiles of the WFCAM filter set, normalised to the peak transmission, plotted against wavelength. The five broad-band filters are plotted in red, and the two 1% narrow-band filters are plotted in green. The lilac line plots the atmospheric transmission (normalised to the continuum) for typical conditions.